Concepts dealt with:
Software components used:
GUIDE more indicated for:
Notes and disclaimer
|Driving review: 3.4|
- Use environment variables
- Include sidecar file (subdivision)
- Configuration example
- How to modify the configuration file (s)
The popular personale HUB software Home Assistant provides various modes for its configuration and for integration of the most disparate home automation components and various types of services. Mainly, to act on its configuration (understood both as that relating to its components core both of the integrations of home automation components and services) acts on a file leader called "configuration.yaml“, A simple text file written in format YAML.
This file is usually placed in the directory responsible for configuring theHUB; for example, when Home Assistant is installed How applicense on the Raspbian operating system usually it is located at the path:
For installation HASSIOusually located at the route:
/ Config /
Or, always on HASSIO (but installed on Docker @ Raspbian):
/ Usr / share / hassium / homeassistant /
Basically it is of a text file containing a series of "blocks" (without a specific order), each of which rappresents a specific one Component / platform di Home Assistant, components that, when configured, define one or more additions (e.g. lights, switches, air conditioners and whoever has more than one) or the configuration specific features proprie dell 'HUB (eg the definition of the "geographical areas"). Apart from specific modifications (to automations, scripts, scenes), each modification foresees the rebootHUB in order to make them operational.
To give an example, when we wanted to integrate into home automation based on Home Assistant a light, say, of the series Magic, we would use the platform dedicated to it "Flux Led / Magic Light", Which is the" daughter "of the component"Light"
The "block" related to this integration would correspond to:
# Esempio di entry su configuration.yaml light: - platform: flux_led automatic_add: True
where the voice "light:"Defines the beginning of the component block"Light"And the sub-block"platform:”Defines the true entity e proere, prolearned by specifying the platform, or "flux_led"
- un components (component) provides the core logic for specific features (eg "and "light", too");
- a platform (platform) creates the connection to a specific software and / or hardware (for example "flux_led“).
Pay attention to the fact that indentation has a role determinant in defining the relationships defined in YAML - most of the configuration errors arise, in fact, from an incorrect indentation. Indented elements are nested within elements of a "higher" level. In the example above, “platform: flux_led" it's a proownership (nested) of the component "notify"
Each degree of indentation is defined by two spaces, not three, not one: the two.
By convention, indentation is defined through two spaces for each nesting level.
The lines preceded by the "#"Are ignored by the system.
Before giving any configuration to food a Home Assistant, it is always a good idea to validate the profirst YAML file through the site YAMLint.
Not all integrations require underlying platforms to be implemented, but they can be used and configured independently.
The example to follow shows a component configuration "Input Select" that progives a list of choice items (as a form of user input at the GUI level). As noted, no platform is indicated.
More proproperty (for example "name") Are specified using mappature. Notice how the second line is only "alzo_tapparelle:"Without any value on the same line. This is because in fact it opens up successive nesting lines to define its parameters:
input_select: alzo_tapparelle: name: Alzo delle tapparelle # Le opzioni di scelta vengono definite tramite la seguente mappatura options: - 0 - 1 - 2 - 3 initial: 0
The following example shows instead the nesting of a collection of mappature in a mappatura itself: in this case two are defined "Sensor"(Sensors) that use the platform"MQTT Sensor"Which have different" state topic "values (one of the protypical properties of an MQTT sensor):
sensor: - platform: mqtt state_topic: sensor/topic - platform: mqtt state_topic: sensor2/topic
USE ENVIRONMENTAL VARIABLES
In the configuration file configuration.yaml (as well as in the other sidecar files linked to it) you can use environment variables. To use one it is sufficient to indicate "! env_var”Followed by the name of the variable itself.
http: api_password: !env_var PASSWORD
If the variable is not defined, it is possible to indicate in the configuration the value to be used alternatively:
http: api_password: !env_var PASSWORD password_di_default
INCLUDE SIDECAR FILE (SUBDIVISION)
Since the configuration expands also increases the length of the file, to improve its readability it is possible to indicate inside specific references to external files using the particle "!includes”Followed by the name of the file to include:
lights: !include lights.yaml
In essence it is possible to maintain "configuration.yaml"As" backbone "of the configuration and use multiple files (.yaml) as" ribs "in which to configure the entities deriving from the various components declared in the main file.
File subdivision "configuration.yaml"In several files sidecar is a technique that reduces complexity and increases manageability - therefore, on inDomus we have decided to dedicate to this theme an ad hoc page.
The following is, roughly (it may change from version to version), a "typical" configuration"Of Home Assistant:
homeassistant: # Name of the location where Home Assistant is running name: Home # Location required to calculate the time the sun rises and sets latitude: 43.9092 longitude: 12.9164 # Impacts weather/sunrise data (altitude above sea level in meters) elevation: 0 # metric for Metric, imperial for Imperial unit_system: metric # Pick yours from here: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_tz_database_time_zones time_zone: Europe/Rome # Customization file customize: !include customize.yaml # Show links to resources in log and frontend introduction: # Enables the frontend frontend: # Enables configuration UI config: # Uncomment this if you are using SSL/TLS, running in Docker container, etc. # http: # base_url: example.duckdns.org:8123 # Checks for available updates # Note: This component will send some information about your system to # the developers to assist with development of Home Assistant. # For more information, please see: # https://home-assistant.io/blog/2016/10/25/explaining-the-updater/ updater: # Optional, allows Home Assistant developers to focus on popular components. # include_used_components: true # Discover some devices automatically discovery: # Allows you to issue voice commands from the frontend in enabled browsers conversation: # Enables support for tracking state changes over time history: # View all events in a logbook logbook: # Enables a map showing the location of tracked devices map: # Track the sun sun: # Allow diagnosing system problems system_health: # Sensors sensor: # Weather prediction - platform: yr # Text to speech tts: - platform: google # Cloud cloud: group: !include groups.yaml automation: !include automations.yaml script: !include scripts.yaml
As can be seen, a series of components are already listed and therefore active on the platform; others, of course, will be customized by hand.
In line, a good rappresentment of the concept of subdivision into multiple files of the configuration file.
As explained in the opening, the modification of these text files is dependent on the type of system and installation of Home Assistant in use.
In the case of Raspbian + Home Assistant, it is possible to access the system via SSH (via terminal or via SFTP, via a typical FTP client) Filezilla) and overwrite / modify files; using HASSIOinstead, the most practical thing is that to install and use theadd-on "Configurator".
With systems like Windows e macOS the thing is trivial: just find the files on the hard disk and edit them directly with a text editor present on the operating system. We recommend the evergreen ATOM.
|ATTENZIONE: remember that there is on our FORUM community an ad hoc section dedicated to Home Assistant, for any doubt, question, information on the specific merit of these components.|